Facts About Cancer

• Cancer is the leading cause of premature mortality
1 in 3 individuals will develop cancer
70% of those will die as a result of the disease
7.6 million deaths a year or 20,000 per day
Poor prognosis due to poor therapy and poor detection

 

Cancer Trends and Statistics in the USA

Estimated deaths in 2012 – 580,000 (declined between 1.3 to 1.7 % from 1998-2008)
Estimated new cancer cases in 2012 – 1.64 million cases
Smoking – 1/3 of US cancer cases
Obesity – 1/5 of cancer cases
Health care costs related to cancer US $226 Billion
Obesity related cancer on the rise – colorectal, pancrease, kidney, endometrial *
* Annual Cancer Report to the Nation
* Centre For Disease Control and Prevention

 

Cancer Prevalence

CANCER SITE               NEW CASES
Lung and Bronchus…….….1.6 million
Colon and Rectum………….1.2 million
Stomach………………………1.1 million
Esophagus……………….….0.6 million
Liver……………………….….0.7 million
Breast………………………….1.3 million
Prostrate………………….….0.8 million
Cervix…………………………0.6 million

BioMark’s initial focus will be on Lung and Colorectal Cancer

 

Background Information

BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON LUNG CANCER TARGET MARKETS

• Lung – most lethal form of cancer
• 1.3 million people die each year
• The 2-year survival rate is only 15%
• Chest X-ray, cell analysis in sputum, fibre optic examination are not very effective
• Low dose CT scans and molecular markers in sputum show promise but sensitivity rates are still low
• There are risks related to biopsy and surgery
• The disease normally spreads before it is discovered

BACKGROUND INFORMATION ON COLORECTAL CANCER TARGET MARKETS

• 630,000 deaths expected
• Highest rates in Japan, Korea and Asia in general
• Risks increase with age, with 90% of cases being people over 50
• Screening reduces mortality since it can detect cancer at early stage. 5 year increases to 90% from 64%
• Many countries are adopting screening programs for people over 50
• Current tests available: FOBT (fecal occult blood test), sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy, barium enema

 

Current Tests

CURRENT TESTS FOR LUNG CANCER – PROBLEMS & OPPORTUNITY

• Lung – most lethal form of cancer
• Tests are expensive, invasive and have low sensitivity; Test for non small cell form of lung cancer
• CEA (Carcinoembryonic antigen ) and SCC (Squamous cell carcinoma antigen) have been in use but have low positive predictive values with excess false positives. CEA also used in colon cancers

CURRENT TESTS FOR COLORECTAL CANCER – PROBLEMS & OPPORTUNITY

• Lack of specificity and sensitivity preclude use of any seum markers CEA, CA 19-9, CA 242, CA
• Low accuracy, high false positive or negative rates, invasiveness and high cots are major drawbacks

 

Demographics

• 750,000 cases of breast, lung and prostate cancer diagnosed annually in the U.S. alone
• Those who are most aware of the dangers of specific cancers are also those most able and likely to pay for early screening, detection and treatment
• High awareness of these diseases among health care professionals and among the general population
• Cancer has become one of the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, and recently overtook heart disease as the leading cause of death for Americans.
• Close to 20 million people in Europe and the U.S. live with cancer today and approximately 2.6 million new cases are diagnosed each year.
• The number of new cases diagnosed each year is increasing mainly as a result of demographics, because most types of solid cancer are typically diseases of the elderly.
• More than 6 million people around the world die of cancer every year, and one of two men and one of three women will develop cancer in their lifetimes.
• The overall annual costs associated with malignancies currently amount to $107 billion (Source: Biomarkers in Oncology, June 29, 2004)

Based on current incidence rates:

• 38% of Canadian women will develop cancer during their lifetimes.
• 44% of Canadian men will develop cancer during their lifetimes.
• Cancer is the leading cause of premature death – or early death – in Canada: 989,800 potential years were lost in 2002 as a result of cancer. This represents 32% of the potential years of life lost resulting from all causes of death. (Source: Canadian Cancer Society)

 

Large tumors = Poor prognosis

• Advanced
– High grade
– Metastasis
– Resistance
• Delivery problems
– Vascularization

Characterics of an Ideal Cancer Biomarker

• Can be detected in the early stages of disease
• Accurately detected
• Highly specific
• Detected with high sensitivity
• Low cost
• Reliable
• Non-invasive method

 

Approach: Improved Targeting

Improved Targeting of Tumours
– Targeted Detection
– Targeted Therapies

Applications of Biomarkers

• Early disease identification
• Identification of potential drug targets
• Predicting the response of patients to treatments
• Acceleration of clinical trials
• Personalized medicine

 

Biomarkers in Development

There are over 120 biomarkers in development, alone and in combinations, across the EDRN (Early Detection Research Network from National Cancer Institute) phases: 27 in Phase 2 development (validating the capacity of biomarkers to distinguish between people with cancer and those without), of which, more than 15 are progressing toward Phase 3; and five in Phase 3 development (determining the capacity to detect pre-clinical disease).
BioMark Technologies Inc. is among the five in Phase 3.

EARLY DETECTION BIOMARKERS IN STUDY FOR SELECTED CANCER SITES 2003 TO 2007

SITE                      NO. OF BIOMARKERS*
Bladder……………………………..3
Breast……………………………….7
Cervical/Endometrial……….……2
Colorectal…………………………21
Esophagus…………………..…….7
Hepatocellular……………….……9
Kidney………………………………1
Lung…………………………..……12
Mesothelium………………….……2
Ovarian………………………..……5
Pancreatic…………………………16
Prostate…………………………….15

*Panels including more than one biomarker were counted as one

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